As a concerned Christian, I would like to fervently respond
to the following paper which was delivered at the CAPS Convention
in Virginia Beach, Virginia entitled:
Dr. Stoll proposes that your marriage can be sanctified by the Meyers-Briggs test even though the Bible states precisely that we are sanctified by the Word of God. Ironically, he uses the very Scripture to support using Myers-Briggs which should be used to refute it's use. If the Word sanctifies and perfects us, "He might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the Word" (Ephesians 5:21-26) then what can Carl Jung/Myers-Briggs add? He also states that Christians should be treated equally, but most Christians were never administered the Myers-Briggs test either today or before it existed, so how is that equal treatment ("There should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care, one for another" (I Cor. 12:25). Now, the only difference I can see between MBTI & Carl Jung himself, is that MBTI uses numerology to codify and number the results of the personality profiling. To sanctify means in part to make holy. How do you make something holy with something which is unholy?
For your convenience and reference, Dr. John Stoll's paper which he presented at your convention may be located at:
As you all know, Myers-Briggs is based on the theories of Carl Jung. So, I invite you to test the spirits to see if they be of God and re-examine whether or not his ideas are truly Biblical and whether or not a Christian Counselor or Pastor can truly implement these tests. I will prove to you below from Jung's own words that his personality profiling was derived from a demonic spirit-guide named Philemon. The Bible calls this Divination and is forbidden by the Lord.
In addition to my article below, I encourage you the read
the following two scholarly articles on the Paganization of Christianity.
I appeal to you all to consider two Scriptures with respect to the use of Meyers-Briggs and Personality Profiling in counseling:
"Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly
prognosticators stand up, and save thee from these things that
shall come "Behold, they shall be as stubble;..." Isaiah
47:13. "Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather
grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?" Matthew 7:16 "For
a good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; neither doth a
corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. For every tree is known
by his own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of
a bramble bush gather they grapes." Luke 6:43-44 "Can
the fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine,
figs? so [can] no fountain both yield salt water and fresh."
"Blessed [is] the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful." Psalm 1:1 (Carl Jung was clearly ungodly and unbiblical in his ideas)
Finally, I humbly submit to you the following verse in the hope that I might actually recruit you to become part of a vanguard to your colleagues, members, and those you counsel to fear the Lord in considering this Scripture:
"Whoever causes one of these little ones to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the depth of the sea." Matthew 18:6
Thank you for your time and consideration.
Kindest regards in Christ,
Rock Salt Publishing
CHURCH GROWTH MOVEMENT
with Subsequent Excerpts from Pastor Gary Gilley's work and an Article by Rev. Ed Hirt
I sent the following letter to a relative who is working on his Masters Degree in Psychology to alert him to the dangers of Psychological Profiling in the Church.
The Meyers-Brigg's derivative the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter is being used extensively by Rick Warren in his SHAPE Program. Bill Hybels the Director of the Willowcreek Association, promotes the Meyers-Briggs test itself in more than 7,500 churches and 90 countries who endorses the Meyers-Briggs test for his members and attenders.
Now one of the most important Scriptures that bear on this subject is:
"Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils." I Timothy 4:1*
This verse is significant in two respects:
1. It demonstrates that devils (evil spirits) are not only real but that they are not archaic in that they not only once existed, but now are NOT extinct. They do indeed exist today.
*A word of clarification and commentary on this passage. Paul gives two examples of what he is referring to in I Timothy 4:3 (two verses later) which were already being practiced in Paul's lifetime. The two doctrines of demons of forbidding to Marry and abstaining from meat would eventually become pillars in Roman Catholicism:
"Forbidding to marry, [and commanding] to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth." I Timothy 4:3
But the fact is all false teaching comes from the Father of Lies and his legions who have perpetuated them from Creation. So it is not only forbidding to marry and commanding the abstain from meat that would constitute doctrines of demons and seducing spirits, but any false teaching would also qualify, including the Meyers-Briggs Personality Profiling which was conceived from Carl Jung practicing Divination through a spirit-guide named Philemon.
The existence of evil spirits is further confirmed by the Apostle Paul's words:
"For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high [places]." Ephesians 6:12
"Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:" Ephesians 2:2
2. If Christians will depart from the faith in the Great Falling Away for giving heed to these spirits and teachings, don't you think it is important for us to know what a false teaching would look like, for Paul to warn us?
Now I will admit, it is not always easy to tell if a teaching is false without the Spiritual Gift of Discernment and/or without knowing the Bible well. But some things are very easy to detect. We simply look in the Scriptures to see if God forbids it or condemns a practice or teaching.
This brings me to Carl Jung. His theory of Personality is at the core of the Meyers-Briggs Test as well as the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter. This can be verified by simply going to either of their websites. Keirsey Temperament Sorter is also used and promoted by Gary Smalley. You can go to his website to confirm this. I have contacted the Jung Institute in Switzerland where Carl Jung founded his work and the Jung Institute in Dallas, TX. I also have been in email correspondence with David Keirsey, Jr. His father designed the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter. He confirms that his father was somewhere between an agnostic and atheist and believed in Darwin's Evolution as well as Jung, of course. I asked the Jung Institute point blank for the statements made by Carl Jung himself that confirms he believed in Darwin's evolution and that Carl Jung believed that our temperaments originated in pre-human animal ancestry. Where did he get these ideas? Well from his own admission, from a spirit-guide named Philemon.
"Philemon and other figures of my fantasies brought home to me the crucial insight that there are things in the psyche which I do not produce, but which produce themselves and have their own life. Philemon represented a force which was not myself. In my fantasies I held conversations with him, and he said things which I had not consciously thought. For I observed clearly that it was he who spoke, not I. . . . Psychologically, Philemon represented superior insight. He was a mysterious figure to me. At times he seemed to me quite real, as if he were a living personality. I went walking up and down the garden with him, and to me he was what the Indians call a guru." Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, op. cit., p. 183.
He also drew it from Greek paganism and mythology. Does this sound good to you? Well the Bible calls this Divination.
Here are some other answers I got back re Jung (with my questions)
> Dear Mental Health Professor of Continuing Education,
Here is a quotation from A Primer of Jungian Psychology by Calvin S. Hall and Vernon J. Nordby, Meridian, 1999, p. 39. This is from a section about The Collective Unconscious.
"The mind of man is prefigured by evolution. Thus, the individual is linked with his past, not only with the past of his infancy but more importantly with the past of the species and before that with the long stretch of organic evolution. This placing of the psyche within the evolutionary process was Jung's preeminent achievement."
Dear James at Rock Salt Publishing,
In answer to your search for a quote, may I refer you to Vol. 20, the Index, of Jung's Collected Works.
Ellie Stillman, Library & Bookstore
8700 Küsnacht, SWITZERLAND
Check out a small book by Calvin S. Hall and Vernon J. Nordby called "A Primer of Jungian Psychology." On page 38-41 you'll find a discussion of the Collective Unconscious that explains Jung's position on the connection to "primordial images" as he referred to the reservoir of latent images in the collective unconscious.
I'll give you a small quote from the Hall/Nordby book:
"Man inherits these images from his ancestral past, a past that includes all of his human ancestors as well as his prehuman or animal ancestors. These racial images are not inherited in the sense that a person consciously remembers or has images that his ancestors had. Rather they are predispositions or potentialities for experiencing and responding to the world in the same ways that his ancestors did."p. 39
"The evolution of a collective unconscious can be accounted for in the same way that the evolution of the body is explained. Because the brain is the principal organ of the mind, the collective unconscious depends directly upon the evolution of the brain." p. 40
Try Vol 7 of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, the chapter on the 'Archetypes of the collective unconscious'.
Sent: Monday, January 20, 2003 1:23 PM
Subject: Question about Carl Jung Quotes
Dear JAP Editor(s),
Do you happen to have or know where I could secure a quote or citation that Carl Jung believed our collective subconscious came from pre-human or animal ancestry (evolution)?
Why can't we import the philosophies of this age and integrate them into the Church to help it grow? Isn't that what Bill Hybels and Rick Warren are doing? What's wrong with that?
Most of the truly great God-fearing Biblical scholars were not wrestling over issues because they thought the Bible was insufficient, but because they believed the Bible was sufficient, but knew that answers were still within the Scriptures, not outside of Scripture. If you read all of the accounts of Paul's journeys, Paul always reasoned from Scripture. Why did he do that? He knew they did supply the answers to life and eternal life. What issue would not have the answer in the Bible? What would you use to determine the absolute authority of answers supplied in books outside of the Bible? And even if you could trust an authority outside of the Bible, why would you want to seek counsel from the philosophers of this age who practiced Divination to get their answers, as Bill Hybels, Rick Warren, and Melody Beattie have all done by importing the ideas and false teachings of people such as Carl Jung? (Melody Beattie, who promotes Eastern Meditation, is referenced more times than any other author in Bill Hybels' book, "Fit To be Tied," and her books are sold at Willow Creek.)
See also: http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/exposes/hybels/general.htm:
"- As indicated above, the Hybels have read a great number of counseling and psychological books and have attended many seminars (Fit To Be Tied, pp. 210-211). Fit To Be Tied also gives ample evidence that they have been strongly influenced by the psychological writings of Melody Beattie. Beattie is footnoted more than any other person in Fit To Be Tied. For example, in chapter 12 there are eight footnotes referring authoritatively to Beattie and her book Codependent No More. On p. 196, the whole page is devoted to Beattie's theories, with five footnote references to Beattie's Codependent No More. The reader is given the clear impression that Beattie is an expert and is to be trusted. There is no indication by the Hybels who Beattie really is and what she teaches. (Melody Beattie's books are also sold in Hybels' church bookstore.)
Who is this woman that the Hybels respect as an "author and counselor"? What does she teach in Codependent No More and in her two sequels, Beyond Codependency and Codependent Guide to the Twelve Steps? Beattie's books from cover to cover are hard core humanistic psychology. But they are more than that. Codependent No More is also a strong promotion and endorsement of Alcoholics Anonymous/12-step programs. Beattie strongly advocates and teaches her readers to seek a "Higher Power," any "Higher Power." This Higher Power is not the God of the Bible, but is whatever one conceives in his imagination. This is idolatry in its purest form. (A female "elder" at Willow Creek claims "our higher power here [at Willow Creek] is Christ.") [Beattie also endorses and highly recommends reading A Course In Miracles, which is full of hard core New Age teaching and was dictated by a spirit guide (i.e., a demon) to its author. It is published by the New Age organization Foundation for Inner Peace. Beattie also endorses the best selling New Age book in the U.S. -- The Road Less Traveled by M. Scott Peck. (Like Melodie Beattie, Hybels likes M. Scott Peck enough to speak favorably of him a number of times in his books and in various articles. Hybels never gives one word of warning whatsoever about this New Age guru.)]"
You should rightfully demand proof that Melody Beattie promotes unbiblical mediation at Willowcreek, so here is the evidence:
"About Step 11 in the Twelve Step Program Melody Beattie states: "STEP #11: "Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him, praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out" (emphasis in original). The question must be asked, "If these people are not praying to the true God, what kind of responses are they receiving, and from whom?" Beattie, whose books are regularly sold in Christian bookstores, has this to say, "Now I have found a spiritual path through some Native American practices. Zen meditation, and shamanistic practices. . . We build a connection to God by building a connection to ourselves " (p179,180). She also has this to say about the messages we receive from "our god," "When it is time, we will receive all the guidance, power and assistance we need to do what we have to do, and we can let go of the rest. If we wait until it is time, our part will be clear. It will be possible. It will happen - naturally, gradually, and with ease. . . When in doubt, when confused stop and ask: What do I need to do to take care of myself? Then listen, and trust what we hear" (p184). SCARY STUFF!"" (Source Gary Gilley, Pastor, Southern View Chapel, Springfield, IL, http://www.svchapel.org/ThinkOnTheseThingsMinistries/publications/html/12step.html)
You should rightfully demand proof that Bill Hybels promotes Carl Jung based Meyers-Briggs test:
"Do you and your spouse need to patiently understand each other's ways of behaving that stem from different inborn temperament traits? Then do it! Or better yet, find a counselor who can give you the Myers-Briggs test, and help you work through the results. It's an investment that could revolutionize the most important relationship in your life." Source: Bill Hybels, "Honest to God," (pp. 74-75),
What book would you suggest we use to, in fact, determine what would constitute "doctrines of demons and seducing spirits" that Paul warned us about that the Church would give heed to? Now you might protest to say "we don't believe in Divination and we certainly don't practice it." Or you might say "Well it is certainly obvious to me now, after you pointed it out that truly Personality Profiling was conceived out of Divination. But it's OK to use it, because we ourselves did not use divination to come up with this personality theory in the first place. We just use it. Afterall, doesn't the Bible say the wealth of the wicked is stored up for the righteous?" Or, "we aren't taking the test derived from divination, just using the results of the test conceived by Carl Jung." Yes you are if you take the test. Carl Jung simply included the instructions for this deadly game. The argument: "we are not practicing divination when we take this profile" is simply not true. As soon as you start identifying and believing the archetype traits that Carl Jung devised, you are practicing divination. You are using it to discover hidden inner knowledge. You are using it to plan your life and direct your course in the Church, exactly what astrology does. "I don't practice divination, I just live by the results of using divination to conduct my life." Are you kidding? And now they have MBTI's for children. You don't think the Scripture about stumbling the least one of these my children will apply to you? You don't think teachers who are held to a stricter accounting will not be held accountable for feeding God's sheep these personality profiles?
The following is A report by Rev. Ed Hird, Past National Chair of ARM Canada, with all of the citations and proof that Carl Jung held these views (it is superb):
So is this something a Christian should believe in or dabble in, let alone import it as a program for the entire church? So this is proof that a person or Christian who takes these Personality Profiling tests is simultaneously doing all of the following at the same time:
ASTROLOGY (Yes, Jung used this too... read his lectures)
NECROMANCY (Jung thought he could talk to the dead, and the dead could talk back) (Carl Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 18, 70-199).
"Blessed [is] the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful." Psalm 1:1
"Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils." I Corinthians 10:21
Carl Jung was ungodly and he did not fear the Lord, which is the beginning of Wisdom....so he did not even have a beginning. And as Isaiah says "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, [it is] because [there is] no light in them." Isaiah 8:20
So, doesn't NO LIGHT mean NO LIGHT?
So, as kindly as I can tell you this exactly what Paul the Apostle meant by Doctrine of Demons and Seducing Spirits. It is hard to imagine him warning us about something non-existent isn't it?
For more information on this subject I recommend the book ADDICTED TO RECOVERY by Dr. Gary Almy, M.D., who is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Loyola University School of Medicine in Chicago and Associate Chief of Staff at Edward Hines, Jr., Veteran's Hospital in Hines, IL.
I also appeal to you based on the Apostle Paul's Letter to Timothy:
"O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane [and] vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called: Which some professing have erred concerning the faith. Grace [be] with thee. Amen." I Timothy 6:20-21
My final appeal to you is in the words of Jesus Christ himself:
"Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.
A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither [can] a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.
Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire."
The goal of our instruction is love, so my fervent hope is that in the end that this would all be edifying to you both, as we would all be lovers of the truth!
Thank you for taking the time to read this!
But above all, I commend you to do what Paul said of the Bereans...study the Scriptures to see if these things be true, and study the quotes of these teachers and see for yourselves if their teachings line up with Scripture....
Article on the more comprehensive roots of Personality Typing:
Here is the link:
CARL JUNG, NEO-GNOSTICISM, & THE MBTI
A report by Rev. Ed Hird, Past National Chair of ARM Canada (revised March 18/98)
In 1991, I had the wonderful privilege of attending the Episcopal Renewal Ministries(ERM) Leadership Training Institute (LTI) in Evergreen, Colorado. Since then, I and others encouraged Anglican Renewal Ministries Canada to endorse the LTI approach, reporting in the ARM Canada magazine with articles about our helpful LTI experiences. ARM Canada, through our LTI Director, Rev. Murray Henderson, has since run a number of very helpful Clergy and Lay LTIs across Canada, which have been well received and appreciated. Through listening to the tapes by Leanne Payne and Dr. Jeffrey Satinover from the 1995 Kelowna Prayer Conference, I came across some new data that challenged me to do some rethinking about the Jungian nature of the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Temperament Indicator) used in the current ARM Canada LTIs. Dr. Jeffrey Satinover's critique of Jungianism came with unique credibility, given his background as an eminent Jungian scholar, analyst, and past President of the C.G. Jung Foundation. I began to do some reading on Carl Jung, and mailed each ARM Board member a copy of the two audio tapes by Payne and Satinover. The ARM Board at our April 1996 meeting took an initial look at the Jungian nature of the MBTI, and whether we should continue to use the MBTI in our LTIs. Our ARM Board agreed to do some investigating on this topic and report back with some information to discuss at the November 1996 ARM Board meeting.
Currently approximately two and a half million people are 'initiated' each year into the MBTI process. (1) According to Peter B. Myers, it is now the most extensively used personality instrument in history. (2) There is even a MBTI version for children, called the MMTIC (Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children)(3), and a simplified adult MBTI-like tool for the general public, known as the Keirsey-Bates Indicator. A most helpful resource in analyzing the MBTI is the English Grove Booklet by Rev. Robert Innes, of St. John's College, Durham, entitled Personality Indicators & the Spiritual Life. Innes focused on "the two indicators most widely used by Christian groups - Myers-Briggs and the Enneagram."(4) One of the key questions for the ARM Board to settle is whether the MBTI is an integral part of Jungian neo-gnosticism, or alternately, that it may be a detachable benevolent portion of Jung's philosophy in an otherwise suspect context. To use a visual picture, is the MBTI the 'marijuana', the low-level entry drug that potentially opens the door to the more hard-core Jungian involvement, or is it just a harmless sugar tablet? To get at this question, I have broken my analysis down into smaller, more concrete questions.
1. Is the MBTI actually connected with Carl Jung?
The Buros Mental Measurement YearBook (1989, 10th Edition) notes that the MBTI "...is a construct-oriented test that is inextricably linked with Jung's (1923) theory of psychological types."(8) As to the evidence of validity, Buros characterizes the stability of type classification over time as "somewhat disappointing."(9) The Jungian/MBTI stance, as expressed by Dr. Gordon Lawrence, former President of the Association for Psychological Types, is that MBTI "types are a fact", not a theory.(10) After reviewing the statistical evidence relating to the MBTI, however, Dr. Paul Kline, Professor of Psychometrics at Exeter University, commented that "There has been no clear support for the 8-fold categorization, despite the popularity of the MBTI."(11) Mario Bergner, a colleague of Leanne Payne in Pastoral Care Ministries, observed in a July 2nd, 1996 letter that "of all the different types of psychological testing, forced choice tests (such as the MBTI) are considered the least valid." More specifically, Bergner noted that "the validity of the MBTI is at zero because the test is based on a Jungian understanding of the soul which cannot be measured for good or bad." The official MBTI view, as expressed by Dr. Gordon Lawrence, is that MBTI personality designations are "as unchangeable as the stripes on a tiger".(12) Bergner, in contrast, does not believe that all of humanity can be unchangeably boxed into 16 temperament types, and is concerned about cases where people are being rejected for job applications, because they don't fit certain MBTI categories.
2. What is Carl Jung's Relation to Neo-Gnosticism?
Jung, says Satinover, "devoted most of his adult life to a study of alchemy; he also explicated both antique hermeticism and the 'christian' gnostics; his earliest writings were about spiritualism..."(19) In his autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Jung claimed: "The possibility of a comparison with alchemy, and the uninterrupted intellectual chain back to Gnosticism, gave substance to my psychology."(20) Most people are not aware that Jung collected one of the largest amassing of spiritualistic writings found on the European continent.(21) Dr. James Hillman, the former director for the Jungian Institute in Zurich, commented, "(Jung) wrote the first introduction to Zen Buddhism, he...brought in (Greek Mythology), the gods and the goddesses, the myths,...he was interested in astrology..."(22)
In 1929, Jung wrote a commentary on the Secret of the Golden Flower, which he said was "not only a Taoist text concerned with Chinese Yoga, but is also an alchemical treatise."(23) He comments that "...it was the text of the Golden Flower that first put me on the right track. For in medieval alchemy we have the long-sought connecting link between Gnosis (i.e. of the Gnostics) and the processes of the collective unconscious that can be observed in modern man..."(24) Dr. Richard Noll comments that "the divinatory methods of the I Ching, used often by Jung in the 1920s and 1930s, were a part of the initial training program of the C.G. Jung Institute of Zurich in 1948, and its use is widely advocated today in Jungian Analytic-Training Institutes throughout the world."(25)
During the hippie movement of the 1960's, the Rock Opera Hair boldly proclaimed the alleged dawning of the Age of Aquarius. Once again Carl Jung foreshadowed this emphasis in a 1940 letter to his former assistant, Godwin Baynes: "1940 is the year when we approach the meridian of the first star in Aquarius. It is the premonitory earthquake of the New Age."(26) In Jung's book Aion, he holds that "...the appearance of Christ coincided with the beginning of a new aeon, the age of the Fishes. A sychronicity exists between the life of Christ and the objective astronomical event, the entrance of the spring equinox into the sign of Pisces."(27) In a letter written by Jung to Sigmund Freud, he said: "My evenings are taken up very largely with astrology. I made horoscopic calculations in order to find a clue to the core of psychological truth...I dare say that we shall one day discover in astrology a good deal of knowledge which has been intuitively projected into the heavens." (28)
Jung's family had occult linkage on both sides, from his paternal Grandfather's Freemasonry involvement as Grandmaster of the Swiss Lodge(29), and his maternal family's long-term involvement with seances and ghosts. John Kerr, author of A Most Dangerous Method, comments that Jung was heavily involved for many years with his mother and two female cousins in hypnotically induced seances. Jung eventually wrote up the seances as his medical dissertation.(30) Jung acquired a spirit guide and guru named 'Philemon'[who was described by Jung as 'an old man with the horns of a bull...and the wings of a fisher']. Before being Philemon, this creature appeared to Jung as 'Elijah', and then finally mutated to 'Ka', an Egyptian earth-soul that 'came from below'.(31) It may be worth reflecting upon why Jung designated his Bollingen Tower as the Shrine of Philemon.(32)
Carl Jung himself was the son of a Swiss Pastor caught in an intellectual faith crisis. When younger, he had a life-changing dream of a subterranean phallic god which reappeared "whenever anyone spoke too emphatically about Lord Jesus."(33) Jung commented that "...the 'man-eater' in general was symbolized by the phallus, so that the dark Lord Jesus, the Jesuit and the phallus were identical."(34) This "initiation into the realm of darkness"(35) radically shaped Jung's approach to Jesus: "Lord Jesus never became quite real for me, never quite acceptable, never quite lovable, for again and again I would think of his underground counterpart...Lord Jesus seemed to me in some ways a god of death...Secretly, his love and kindness, which I always heard praised, appeared doubtful to me..."(36) The next major spiritual breakthrough in his life was what Jung described as a "blasphemous vision"(37) of God dropping his dung on the local Cathedral. This vision, said Jung, gave him an intense "experience of divine grace".(38)
3. How serious is the Jungian Reconciliation of Good and Evil?
One of Jung's key emphases was that the "dark side" of human nature needed to be "integrated" into a single, overarching "wholeness" in order to form a less strict and difficult definition of goodness.(41) "For Jung", says Satinover, "good and evil evolved into two equal, balanced, cosmic principles that belong together in one overarching synthesis. This relativization of good and evil by their reconciliation is the heart of the ancient doctrines of gnosticism, which also located spirituality, hence morality, within man himself. Hence 'the union of opposites'."(42)
Jung believed that "the Christ-symbol lacks wholeness in the modern psychological sense, since it does not include the dark side of things..."(43) For Jung, it was regrettable that Christ in his goodness lacked a shadow side, and God the Father, who is the Light, lacked darkness.(44) He spoke of "...an archetype such as...the still pending answer to the Gnostic question as to the origin of evil, or, to put it another way, the incompleteness of the Christian God-image"(45) Jung sought a solution to this dilemma in the Holy Spirit who united the split in the moral opposites symbolized by Christ and Satan.(46) "Looked at from a quaternary standpoint", writes Jung, "the Holy Ghost is a reconciliation of opposites and hence the answer to the suffering in the Godhead which Christ personifies."(47) Thus for Jung, says John Dourley, the Spirit unites the exclusively spiritual reality of Christ with that which is identified with the devil, including 'the dark world of nature-bound man', the chthonic side of nature excluded by Christianity from the Christ image.(48) In a similar vein, Jung saw the alchemical figure of Mercurius as a compensation for the one-sideness of the symbol of Christ.(49) That is why Jung believed that "It is possible for a man to attain totality, to become whole, only with the co-operation of the spirit of darkness..."(50)
4. How Much Influence does Jungian Neo-Gnosticism have on
Joseph Campbell, cited by Satinover as a disciple of Jung, is famous for his public TV series on "The Power of Myth".(52) Bishop John Spong, who has written two books (Resurrection: Myth or Reality & The Easter Moment) denying the physical resurrection of Jesus Christ, gives Joseph Campbell credit for shaping his views on Jesus' resurrection. "I was touched by Campbell's ability to seek the truth of myths while refusing to literalize the rational explanation of those myths...Campbell allowed me to appreciate such timeless themes as virgin births, incarnations, physical resurrections, and cosmic ascensions...Slowly, ever so slowly, but equally ever so surely, a separation began to occur for me between the experience captured for us Christians in the word Easter and the interpretation of that experience found in both the Christian Scriptures and the developing Christian traditions..."(53) Few people have realized that Bishop Spong's spiritual grandfather is none other than Carl Jung.
"Jung's direct and indirect impact on mainstream Christianity - and thus on Western culture," says Satinover, " has been incalculable. It is no exaggeration to say that the theological positions of most mainstream denominations in their approach to pastoral care, as well as in their doctrines and liturgy - have become more or less identical with Jung's psychological/symbolic theology."(54) It is not just the more 'liberal' groups, however, that are embracing the Jungian/MBTI approach. In a good number of Evangelical theological colleges, the MBTI is being imposed upon the student body as a basic course requirement, despite the official Jungian stance that "The client has the choice of taking the MBTI or not. Even subtle pressure should be avoided (55)."
While in theological school, I became aware of the strong influence of Dr. Paul Tillich on many modern clergy. In recently reading C.G. Jung & Paul Tillich [written by John Dourley, a Jungian analyst & Roman priest from Ottawa], I came to realize that Tillich and Jung are 'theological twins'. In a tribute given at a Memorial for Jung's death, Tillich gave to Jung's thought the status of an ontology because its depth and universality constituted a 'doctrine of being'(56) It turns out that Tillich is heavily in debt in Jung for his view of God as the supposed "Ground of Being". As well, both Tillich and Jung, says Dourley, "understand the self to be that centering force within the psyche which brings together the opposites or polarities, whose dynamic interplay makes up life itself."(57) As a Jungian popularizer, Tillich saw life as "made up of the flow of energy between opposing poles or opposites."(58)
So many current theological emphases in today's church can be traced directly back to Carl Jung. For example, with the loss of confidence in the Missionary imperative, many mainline church administrators today sound remarkably like Jung when he said: "What we from our point of view call colonization, missions to the heathen, spread of civilization, etc, has another face - the face of a bird of prey seeking with cruel intentness for distant quarry - a face worthy of a race of pirates and highwaymen."(59) In speaking of Buddhism and Christianity, Jung taught the now familiar inter-faith dialogue line, that "Both paths are right."(60) Jung spoke of Jesus, Mani, Buddha, and Lao-Tse as 'pillars of the spirit', saying "I could give none preference over the other."(61) The English Theologian Don Cupitt says that Jung pioneered the multi-faith approach now widespread in the Church.(62)
For those of us who wonder why some Anglicans are mistakenly calling themselves "co-creators with God", the theological roots can again be traced back to Jung: "...man is indispensable for the completion of creation; that, in fact, he himself is the 2nd creator of the world, who alone has given to the world its objective existence..."(63) In light of our current Canadian controversies around "Mother Goddess" hymnbooks, it is interesting to read in the MBTI source book, Psychological Types( Carl Jung, 1921) about the "Gnostic prototype, viz, Sophia, an immensely significant symbol for the Gnosis."(64) Carl Jung is indeed the Grandfather of much of our current theology.
5. What is the connection between 'Archetypes', the Unconscious
and the MBTI?
Dr. Richard Noll holds in his book The Jung Cult that such Jungian ideas as the "collective unconscious" and the theory of the archetypes come as much from late 19th century occultism, neopaganism, and social Darwinian teaching, as they do from natural science.(67) Jung's post-Freudian work (after 1912), especially his theories of the collective unconscious and the archetypes, could not have been constructed, says Noll, without the works of G.R.S. Mead on Gnosticism, Hermeticism, and the Mithraic Liturgy. Starting in 1911, Jung quoted Mead, a practicing Theosophist, regularly in his works through his entire life.(68) Richard Webster holds that "the Unconscious is not simply an occult entity for whose real existence there is no palpable evidence. It is an illusion produced by language - a kind of intellectual hallucination."(69)
Jung was a master at creating obscure, scientific-sounding concepts, usually adapted from occultic literature. Jung held that "the collective unconsciousness is the sediment of all the experience of the universe of all time, and is also the image of the universe that has been in process of formation from untold ages. In the course of time, certain features became prominent in this image, the so-called dominants (later called archetypes by Jung)."(70) [Much of Jung's teaching on archetypes is so obscure that I have placed the relevant data in the footnotes of this report, for the more motivated reader.]
In his phylogenetic racial theory, Jung assumes that acquired cultural attitudes, and hence Jungian archetypes, can actually be transmitted by genetic inheritance. Richard Webster, however, explodes Jung's phylogenetic theory as biologically untenable.(71) Peter B. Medawar, a distinguished biologist, wrote in the New York Review of Books (Jan. 23, 1975): "The opinion is gaining ground that doctrinaire psychoanalytic theory is the most stupendous intellectual confidence trick of the 20th century: and a terminal product as well - something akin to a dinosaur or zeppelin in the history of ideas, a vast structure of radically unsound design and with no posterity."
"This work Psychological Types (1921), said Jung, "sprung originally from my need to define the way in which my outlook differs from Freud's and Adler's. In attempting to answer this question, I came across the problem of types, for it is one's psychological type which from the outset determines and limits a person's judgment."(72) In words strangely reminiscent of L. Ron Hubbard's Scientology, Jung teaches in Psychological Types (PT) that "The unconscious, regarded as the historical background of the psyche, contains in a concentrated form the entire succession of engrams (imprints), which from time to time have determined the psychic structure as it now exists."(73)
Jung held in PT that "The magician...has access to the unconscious that is still pagan, where the opposites still lie together in their primeval naiveté, beyond the reach of 'sinfulness', but liable, when accepted into conscious life, to beget evil as well as good with the same primeval and therefore daemonic force."(74) Jung entitled an entire section in PT: "Concerning the Brahmanic Conception of the Reconciling Symbol". Jung notes: "Brahman therefore must signify the irrational union of the opposites - hence their final overcoming...These quotations show that Brahman is the reconciliation and dissolution of the opposites - hence standing beyond them as an irrational factor."(75)
My recurring question is: "Do we in ARM Canada wish to be directly or indirectly sanctioning this kind of teaching?" Symbolically, the MBTI can be thought of as a "freeze-dried" version of Jung's Psychological Types (1921). Since PT teaches extensively about Jung's archetypes and collective unconscious, it seems clear to me that to endorse the 'freeze-dried' MBTI is ultimately to endorse Jung's archetypal, occultic philosophy.
6. What is the Relationship between Neo-gnosticism and the
"The book on types (PT)", says Jung, "yielded the view that every judgment made by an individual is conditioned by his personality type and that every point of view is necessarily relative. This raised the question of the unity which much compensate this diversity, and it led me directly to the Chinese concept of Tao."(79) Put simply, the MBTI conceptually leads to Taoism. Jung held that the central concept of his psychology was "the process of individuation". Interesting the subtitle of the PT book, which The MBTI claims to represent, is "...or The Psychology of Individuation". Philip Davis, Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of P.E.I. comments, "In this lengthy process of 'individuation', one learns that one's personality incorporates a series of polar opposites: rationality and irrationality, the 'animal' and the 'spiritual', 'masculinity' and 'femininity', and so on. The goal of the (Jungian) exercise is the reconciliation of the opposites, bringing them all into a harmony that results in 'self-actualization'." (80) Once again, it seems that aspect after aspect of this seemingly innocuous personality test leads back to Jung's fundamental philosophic and religious teachings.
Two of Jung's 'most influential archetypes' are the anima & animus, described by Jung as "psychological bisexuality".(81) Jung teaches in PT that every man has a female soul (anima) and every woman has a male soul (animus).(82) Noll comments that "Jung's first encounter with the feminine entity he later called the anima seems to have begun with his use of mediumistic techniques..."(83) Based on the recently discovered personal diary of Sabina Spielrein, John Kerr claims that Jung's so-called anima "the woman within" which he spoke to, was none other than his idealized image of his former mistress, patient, and fellow therapist, Sabina Spielrein.(84) After breaking with both Spielrein and Freud, Jung felt his own soul vanish as if it had flown away to the land of the dead. Shortly after, while his children were plagued by nightmares and the house was seemingly haunted, Jung heard a chorus of spirits cry out demanding: 'We have come back from Jerusalem where we have not found what we sought.'(85)
In response to these spirits, Jung wrote his Seven Sermons to the Dead. In these seven messages Jung 'reveals', in agreement with the 2nd century Gnostic writer Basilides, the True and Ultimate God as Abraxas, who combines Jesus and Satan, good and evil all in one.(86) This is why Jung held that "Light is followed by shadow, the other side of the Creator."(87) Dr. Noll, a clinical psychologist and post-doctoral fellow at Harvard University, holds that "Jung was waging war against Christianity and its distant, absolute, unreachable God and was training his disciples to listen to the voice of the dead and to become gods themselves."(88)
7. What Does the MBTI Prototype Book "Psychological Types"
teach about Opposites?
Dr. Gordon Lawrence, a strong Jungian/MBTI supporter, teaches that "In Jung's theory, the two kinds of perception - sensing and intuition - are polar opposites of each other. Similarly, thinking judgment and feeling judgment are polar opposites."(93) It seems to me that the setting up of the psychological polar opposites in PT functions as a useful prelude for gnostic reconciliation of all opposites. The MBTI helps condition our minds into thinking about the existence of polar opposites, and their alleged barriers to perfect wholeness. In the PT book, Jung comments that "One may be sure therefore, that, interwoven in the new symbol with its living beauty, there is also the element of evil, for, if not, it would lack the glow of life as well as beauty, since life and beauty are naturally indifferent to morality."(94) My question for the ARM Board is: "Do we accept Jung's 'polar opposites' view that there can be no life and beauty without evil?"
"We must beware", said Jung, "of thinking of good and evil as absolute opposites...The criterion of ethical action can no longer consist in the simple view that good has the force of a categorical imperative, while so -called evil can resolutely be shunned. Recognition of the reality of evil necessarily relativizes the good, and the evil likewise, converting both into halves of a paradoxical whole."(95) Here is where Jung ties in his ethical relativism to the PT/MBTI worldview: "In practical terms, this means that good and evil are no longer so self-evident. We have to realize that each represents a judgment."(96)
Jung saw the reconciliation of opposites as a sign of great sophistication: "(Chinese philosophy) never failed to acknowledge the polarity and paradoxity of all life. The opposites always balanced one another - a sign of high culture. Onesideness, though it lends momentum, is a sign of barbarism."(97) It would not be too far off to describe Jung as a gnostic Taoist. In PT, Jung comments that "The Indian (Brahman-Atman teaching) conception teaches liberation from the opposites, by which every sort of affective style and emotional hold to the object is understood...Yoga is a method by which the libido is systematically 'drawn in' and thereby released from the bondage of opposites."(98)
While in India in 1938, Jung says that he "was principally concerned with the question of the psychological nature of evil."(99) He was "impressed again and again by the fact that these people were able to integrate so-called 'evil' without 'losing face'...To the oriental, good and evil are meaningfully contained in nature, and are merely varying degrees of the same thing. I saw that Indian spirituality contains as much of evil as of good...one does not really believe in evil, and one does not really believe in good."(100)
In a comment reminiscent of our 1990's relativistic culture, Jung said of Hindu thought: " Good or evil are then regarded at most as my good or my evil, as whatever seems to me good or evil".(101) To accept the eight polarities within the MBTI predisposes one to embrace Jung's teaching that the psyche "cannot set up any absolute truths, for its own polarity determines the relativity of its statements."(102) Jung was also a strong promoter of the occultic mandala, a circular picture with a sun or star usually at the centre. Sun worship, as personified in the mandala, is perhaps the key to fully understanding Jung.(103) Jung taught that the mandala [Sanskrit for 'circle'] was "the simplest model of a concept of wholeness, and one which spontaneously arises in the mind as a representation of the struggle and reconciliation of opposites."(104)
In conclusion, to endorse the MBTI is to endorse Jung's book Psychological Types, since the MBTI proponents consistently say that the MBTI "was developed specifically to carry Carl Jung's theory of types (1921, 1971) into practical application."(105) Let us seek the Lord in unity as he reveals his heart for us in this matter.
Rev. Ed Hird, Past National Chair, ARM Canada
p.s. ARM Canada decided in November 1997 after much prayer
and reflection to no longer use the MBTI in the Clergy and Lay
Leadership Training Institutes.
1. Isabel Briggs Myers with Peter B. Myers, Gifts Differing,
Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Press, Inc., 1980,p. xvii. Many charismatics
have a soft spot for this book, because it quotes portions of
scripture from Romans 12 and 1 Corinthians 12. The actual link,
however, between those bible passages, and the Jung/Myers-Briggs
theories is rather questionable.
The Reverend Ed Hird